VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION - PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT



VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY

Contents

 Introduction Of Motivation
 Various Definition Of Motivation
 Important Elements Of Model
 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Product of Valence and Expectancy
 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Vroom’s model
 Conclusion
 Bibliography
    
Introduction Of Motivation

Motivation is the force that drives a person into action. In the context of business, when we say that a manager motivates a person, it means he inspires him to do a particular task that will lead to the accomplishment of organizational goal. 

The person concerned in turn, shall perform that task only if he feels that such an action would satisfy his personal needs. A person initially joins an organization for the monetary benefits. Once his financial needs are reasonably satisfied he looks forward to the satisfaction of his behavioral needs. A person who works at a position where enough financial rewards are offered but the level of job satisfaction is low. Will perhaps look for another job.

Motivation, is often a very complex task because the factors that motivate an individual to work are themselves very complex and complicated. Financial incentives may be important for one worker while non-financial incentives may be important for the other. The manager must, therefore, be well equipped in the skills of determining as to what motivates the human behavior. In fact, motivation is an aspect of management where managers themselves need to be trained before they set in to motivate their subordinates.

An individual works or performs a particular behavioral activity, in the first instance, not because he wishes the organizational goals to be achieved but probably because that work will give him some financial rewards through which he can satisfy his own needs and desires. The need, is therefore, the main driving force that motivates human behavior towards a particular action. 

Various Definition Of Motivation

Definitions of motivation given by different management thinkers are given below:
According to Gibson “Motivation may be defined as the state on of individual tie which represents the strength of his or her propensity to untoward some particular behavior.”

According to Dubrin “motivation refers to expenditure of efforts towards a go”.

According to Steers and porter “motivation is the force that energizes behavior, gives direction to behavior and underlies the tendency to persist.”  

According to Weihrich And Koontz:- “ motivation is a general  term applying  to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate there subordinates  is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act In a desired manner”.

According to Pearce And Robinson “ Motivation is the out come of the process by which a manager induces others to work to achieve organizational objectives as means of satisfying their own personal desires”.

According to Encyclopedia of management, the motivation is defined as, “the degree of readiness of an organization to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force, inducing the degree of readiness.”

Important Elements Of Model

This model is based upon the assumption that the man is a rational being and will try to maximize his pay off. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit . This approach assumes that motivation to work is strongly determined  by  an individual’s perception that a certain type of behavior will lead to a certain type of outcome and his personal preference for that type of out come .  

There are three important elements in this model:-

Expectancy:- 

                         This is a person’s  perception of the likelihood that  a particular outcome will result from a particular behavior or action.  The likelihood is probabilistic in nature and describes that relationship between an act and an outcome. For example, if a person works hard, he may except to perform better and increase productivity. Similarly, if a student works hard during the semester, he expects to do well in the final examination.

Instrumentality:- 

                              This factor relates to a persons belief and expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward . it is the degree of association of first level outcome of a particular effort to the second level outcome – which is the ultimate reward for example , working  hard may lead to better performance, which is the first level outcome ,which may result in a reward like raise in pay or promotion or both, which is the second level outcome.

 If a person believe that his performance will not be recognized or lead to expected rewards , he will not be motivated  to work hard to improve on his techniques of teaching and communication (first level outcome) in order to get promotion and tenure (second level outcome) Accordingly to ,the instrumentality is the performance- reward relationship

Valence:-

                        Valence is the value a person assigns to his desired reward. He may not be willing to work hard to improve performance, if the reward for such improved performances not what he desires. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perceptional value of the reward in the mind of the work hard, not to get pay raise but to get recognition and status. Another person may be more interested in job security than with status.

Accordingly, according to this model of motivation, the person level of effort (MOTIVATION) depends upon:-

Expectancy:- 

A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well.

Instrumentality: - 

The worker must be confident that such high performance will be Instrumental in getting desired rewards.

Valence: - 

The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfactory. Hence motivation is related to all these three factors as:

Motivational Force (M) =Expectancy (E) x Instrumentality (I) x Valence (V) or M= (E X I X V).

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Product of Valence and Expectancy:-

Vroom’s expectancy theory – vroom theory asserts that motivation is a  product of valance and expectancy.

 MOTIVATION OR FPRCE = valance *expectancy

Force is the motivation that influences an individual to act or behave in the given manner
Valence is how strong an individual holds about the outcome of his action. “it is the preference an individual places on an outcome.”

Valance may be positive or negative depending on his preference for an outcome. It ranges from -1 to +1. if a particular action of employee is followed by a promotion, he will prefer doing that action. Since the outcome has a positive value, valence shall be +1. if his action shall result into his transfer or demotion, he would avoid such an outcome and therefore, shall place negative value to the outcome. The valance for the outcome is -1. If an individual action is not affected by any outcome, a routine behaviour, foe examples, which is neither followed by outcomes of promotion or demotion, the valence shall be zero (0).

Expectancy is a belief that an action shall lead to an outcome. It ranges from to 1. if an employee believes that his action will lead to an outcome, his expectancy is 1 and if the probability that his action shall not lead to any outcome is high, the expectancy shall be more towards zero. Two types of expectancies have been talked of:-

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Efforts-performance expectancy: -

                      It is the expectation of the employee that is efforts shall lead to a desire performance. For example, an individual may feel that if he works  for 2 hours overtime every day, he shJall be able to produce more. If the employee feels that his efforts shall lead to the desire performance, he shall  perform task. 

Performance:- 

                       It is outcome expectancy It is the expectation of the employees that if the desired performance is achieved, it shall be followed by a positive outcome. Greater the probability that the performance shall be followed by a positive outcome, greater shall be the desire of the individual to perform that action. In the above example, the employee shall put in 2 hours of  overtime every day only if he expects an increase in his salary. If the management dose not give him any extra benefit for producing more, his expectancy shall be zero (0)and he shall not be motivated to perform that action.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:-

This theory tells us that simply making motivation factors available to people is not enough. People must believe that by working , they will receive reward that are important to them. People’s actions are based on their expectations as well as their needs. Unless there is a  positive expectation of a reward that well satisfy a need ,an individual' will not take action. To illustrate consider a person who is thirsty .there may be need for water, but the action of going to the faucet and getting a drink  occurs only if he expects will result in obtaining water.

The experience of one manufacturing company indicates the importance of expectations. The management head decided to expand the company, and it knew that a number of supervisors would be  needed to prepare for the expansion, the company decided to run a training programmed for its employees (non-supervisors) to prepare them to become supervisors. the programmed was open to all  employees at no cost. When the programmed started ,only three people attended the programmed. 

Management interviewed the employees who did not participate to find out the reasons for their poor participation. Many employees stated that they would like to be promoted but did not feel that attending the programmed would help." promotion is based on whom you know," was the commonly expressed opinion. in other words although promotion was a motivating factor to employees, they did not participate in the training programmed because they did not believe it would help them in getting promotion.

Similarly, how hard people work is affected by their needs and whether or not they expect a good job performance to result in rewards that will satisfy their needs. To be motivated, people  must believe that by working hard, they will fulfill  the needs that are important to them.

 In short, we can say, that if a manager wants to motivate his employees, he should do the following:-

1. Try to offer rewards (motivation factors) that are important to his employees.
2. Create positive expectations.

THE VROOM THEORY AND PRACTICE:-

                           One of the great attractions of the Vroom theory is that it recognizes the importance of various individual needs and motivations. It thus avoids some of the simplistic features of the maslow and Herzberg approaches. It dose seem more realistic. it fits  the concept of harmony of objectives individuals have personal goals different from organizational goals, but these can be harmonized.furthermore,Vroom’s theory is completely consistent with the system of managing by objectives.

The strength of Vroom’s theory is also its weakness. His assumption that senses of value vary among individuals at different times and in various places appears to fit real life more accurately. It is consistent also with the idea that a manager’s job is to design an  environment for performance, necessarily taking in to account the differences in various situations. On the other hand vroom’s theory is  difficult to apply in practice. Despite its difficulty in application, the logical accuracy of Vroom’s theory indicates that motivation is much more complex than the approaches of Maslow and Herzberg seem to imply.

This theory developed by victor h. vroom and it expands upon those developed by Maslow and Herzberg. It views motivation as a process governing choices. Thus, if an individual has a particular goal, in order to achieve  the goal, some behavior must be performed. The individual, therefore, weights the likelihood  that various behaviors will achieve the desired goal, and if certain behavior “is expected to be more successful than others ,that type of  behavior will likely be selected. An important contribution of vroom’s theory is that it explains  how the goals of individuals influence their effort and that the behavior in goals of individuals influence their effort and that the behavior individuals select depends upon their assessment of the probability that the behavior will successfully lend to the goal. For example, all members of an organization may not place the same value on such job factors as promotion, high pay, job security, and working conditions. In other words, they may rank them differently. Vroom believes that what is important is the perception and value the individual places upon certain goals.

The expectancy theory argues that the  strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends in the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome of the individual. it includes three variables (which vroom refers to as valence,*Instrumentality, and Expectancy)   

Attractiveness:-

The importance or the strength that the individual places on potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job this considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual.

Performance-reward linkage:-

The degree to which the individual believes that performing of   particular level will lead to the attainment of each job outcome.

Effort performance linkage:-

         The perceived probability by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lend to performance.

In other words, a person’s desire to produce at any given time depends on his particular goals and his perception of the relative worth of performance as a path to the attainment of these goals. The strength of a persons’ motivation to perform (effort) depends upon how strongly he believes that he can achieve what he attempts. The four steps inherent in vroom’s theory are: 

What outcome dose the job offers the employee?

The important issue to be considered is what individual employee perceives the outcome to be. Outcomes may be positive - such as pay security, companionship, trust, fringes benefits, a chance to use talents or skills, congenial relationship-or negative, such as fatigue, boredom, frustration, anxiety, harsh supervision, threat of dismissal, etc.

How attractive Do employees view these outcomes?

This issue is related to the individual and considers his likes and dislikes. If a particular outcome is found to be attractive (positive) individual would prefer attaining it to attaining it. It if is negative, he would prefer not attaining it to attaining it. Additionally, he may be natural.

What kind of behavior must the employee produce in order to achieve these objectives? 

The outcomes can be effective only when the employee knows clearly what he must do in order to achieve them – i.e., he should know what are the criteria on the basis of which his performance would be judged. 

How dose the employee view his chance of doing what is asked of him? 

After knowing his competencies and his abilities the individual should ascertain the probability of his successful attainment of the job.

In sum, vroom emphasizes the importance of individual perceptions and assessments of organizational behavior. The key to “expectancy” theory is the “understanding of an individual’s goals” – and the linkage between “efforts” and “performance” , between “performance” and “rewards” ‘ and between “rewards" and “individual-goal satisfaction.” 

 It is a contingency model, which recognizes that there is no universal method of motivating people. Because we understand what needs an employee seeks to satisfy dose not ensure that the employee himself perceives high job performance as necessarily leading to the satisfaction of these needs. 

Vroom’s model:-

VROOM’S MODEL has brought forward the following particulars:
Its emphasis is on pay of or rewards. In other words, the rewards an organization offers aligns with what the employee wants:

We have to be concerned with the attractiveness of rewards, which requires understanding and knowledge of what value the individual puts on organization payoff. Individual should be rewarded with those he value positively.

It emphasizes expected behaviors i.e.; the individual should know what is expected of him and how he will be appraised.

It implies that management should counsel subordinates to help them grasp a realistic view of their competency.

The management should support the subordinates in developing that skill that are important in leading to better performance.

It also implies that management should make extended efforts of demonstrating confidence in individual that they can perform well.

It has been used to explain specific forms of employee behavior; for example, the turn – over of younger workers, during pre-job training.

From management’s point of view, the implications of this theory are two-fold:

First, it is important to determine what needs each employee seeks to satisfy. This knowledge will be useful to management while attempting to align rewards available to the employee with the needs that the employee seeks to satisfy. It is necessary to individualize rewards to each employee, for rewards that are valuable for some may not be appealing to others. 

Second, management should attempt to clarify the path for the worker between efforts and needs satisfaction. Individual motivation will be significantly determined by the probabilities the worker assigns to the following relationship: 

His effort leading to performance – performance leading to rewards, and these rewards – satisfying personal goals.

Vroom’s theory, in sum, indicates only the conceptual determinants of motivation and how they how related. It  does not provide specific suggestions on what motivation humans in organization, as did the maslow and herzberg models. It is, however, of value in understanding organizational behavior. 

It clarifies the goals between individual and organizational goals. It attempts only to mirror the complex motivation process; it does not attement to describe how motivational decisions are actually made or to solve actual motivational problems facing manager. It needs further testing to prove its validity. 

Conclusion:-

The Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom deals with motivation and management. Vroom's theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. 

Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.

Bibliography:-

Management Theory of Practice  - J. S. Chandan

Students guide to Management  - Dr. N. Vasisth

Essentials of Management       - Harold Koontz  - Heinz Weihrich

Essentials of Management - P. N. Reddy - P. C. Tripathi- H. R. Appannaia

Personnel Management - C. B. Mammoria



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