VARIOUS TYPES OF LEADERSHIP -PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT




VARIOUS TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

BY

SMART LEARNING WAY

CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
VARIOUS TYPES  OF LEADERSHIP
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

INTRODUCTION 

Leadership is an indivisible part of directing. Management and leadership are often thought of as one and the same thing. But this is not true leadership is an important part of management but not all of it.

FOR EXAMPLE : Managers are required to plan and organize but the main role of a leader is to seek defined objective. This means that a strong leader may be a poor manager if his poor planning causes his group to move in wrong direction.     

Leadership is a natural process and must fulfilled whenever human beings are brought together for a common objectives only a leader  can guide his subordinates.

Rightly opines that managers have manage to business which means that they have to provide leadership.

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

‘‘Leadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of common goal.’’                                -KOONTZ AND O’DONNELL                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                     
  “A leader is one who guides and directs other people .A leader given the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their BEHAVIOUR”.-LOUIS A.ALLEN
                                                                                                           
"The ability of a person to guide them in their activities in a manner so as to secure actions from a group of followers voluntarily without the use of threat or coercion”.
                                                                       -THE STANDARD OXFORD DICTIONARY
TYPES  OF LEADERSHIP

1    AUTOCRATIC  LEADERSHIP

2    DEMOCRATIC  LEADERSHIP

3     LAISEZ-FAIRE  LEADERSHIP

4    PARTICIPATIVE  LEADERSHIP

5     CONSULTATIVE  LEADERSHIP

6     PATERNALISTIC  LEADERSHIP

7     BUREAUCRATIC  LEADERSHIP

8      MANIPULATIVE    LEADERSHIP

9     EXPERT     LEADERSHIP

AUTOCRATIC   LEADERSHIP

·         An autocratic  leader is work centered or leader –centered .He concentrates all the authority and all the decision-making powers in himself.
·         His  subordinates  fully depend upon him and are unaware of the goals  of the organization. The leader takes and assumes full responsibility for decision making ,for initiating action and for directing,motivating and controlling his subordinates. Autocratic leader may think that the he is the only competent and
·         Capable individual and that his subordinates are incapable or unwilling to guide themselves, or  he may have other  reasons for assuming a strong position of guidance control.

ADVANTAGES 

·         Since decision – making power is centralized decisions are taken very quickly.  less competent and skilled employees can be hired by management since they have to only carry out instruction  of the leaders and not initiate any action in their own.

DRAWBACKS

·         workers do not get job satisfaction and are not always ready to work under the  negative style of leadership.

Frustration  and  dissatisfaction can develop amongst the follower which may negatively affect the productivity.
DEMOCRATIC  LEADERSHIP

·         AS  the spirit of team work improves the leader not only invite followers to participate in the decision – making process, they also often start taking decisions according to the desires of  the majority of the  followers.

·         The decisions are made in the group through group discussions by the formation of various commttees.it is also called as ‘group  dynamics' approach to participation.

ADVANTAGE

·         There is the development of the spirit of cooperation the innovative capabilities of subordinates are explored. It can give management new ideas of dealing with a particular problem.
 
·      IT leads  to the overall  development of the subordinates who become capable of becoming the potential managers.
LIMITATIONS

·         Consultation with subordinates  every time a decision has to be made is a time consuming process. Decisions may sometimes be delayed.
·    
       Suggestions given by subordinates may sometimes be better than what the leaders could have thought of leaders in such cases may not feel happy inviting suggestions.
·         Offering  suggestions may be felt as an extra burden by the employees and they may not always be willing to do so.

LAISSEZ-FAIRE  LEADERSHIP

·         The leaders give  the entire responsibility of forming the goals and devising means to achieve those goals to the group  members . The leaders remain indifferent to the group activities and allow them to carry out their work in their own way.

·         The role of a leader is that of an on-looker who plays a  very minor role in affecting the group goals. This is not a very acceptable style of leadership to be applied in business organizations unless the leaders have a very strong referent and expert power whose influence itself motivates the subordinates to set goals of the appropriate standard which are capable of being effectively achieved.

ADVANTAGES

·         IT increases the morale of the employees towards a higher job sartisfaction as they them selves have to set and achieve the goals.
·         the subordinates train their own group members and motivate them to work. The results are likely to be more productive.

LIMITATION

·         The leaders do not participate in the group’s way of working at the most they only answer the questions that the group members ask them. The efficiency of such work activities is likely to be low.
·         leaving everything to subordinates may prove to be chaotic for the entire organisation.

PARTICIPATIVE  LEADERSHIP

·         These leaders do not centralized the decision making authority with them rather they decent rallies it to their followers though the ultimate responsibility continues to vest  with the leaders they take all decisions in consultation with their followers.

·         The followers thus develop a sense of involvement in the decision –making process and contribute more positively towards the group goals.

·         They see themselves as an important part of the organizasation and readily offer their services to their leaders.

Participation has been defined as  ‘Mental and emotional involvement of persons in group situatious that encourage them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them. --KEITH   DAVIS

CONSULTATIVE  LEADERSHIP

·       The consultative method of leadership is more likely to succeed. The subordinates put their heart in their work when their views and opinions are respected and their ego is satisfied thereby. 

·         Where other methods fail, this method can succeed in raising morale of the workers. Close personal contacts are developed and clear understanding of the problems are ensued. The departmental heads get opportunity to hear and see the president and other top officials of the company. They listen to their viewpoints and understand the forces which have worked  behind decisions.

ADVANTAGES
·          
     The participation in management raises the productivity and job satisfaction among employees.

·         As their suggestion and opinions are solicited and considered, the employees feel sense of status.

·         Morale and discipline among employees are maintained at a high level.

·         Evils of concentration of power are sought to be removed

LIMITATION

·         The method generally succeeds when subordinates are educated, having a sense of responsibility and organized. However, such is not always the case.

·         It results into great waste of time. Decisions are taken after long deliberations and exchange of ideas;hence the decision making is delayed.

·         Most of managers become uneasy with this approach,thinking that they will lose control over the subordinates.

PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP

·         Under this management style the leader assumes that his function is fatherly or paternal. Paternalism means papa know best .The relationship between the head of the family with the members of the family.

·     The leader guides and protects his subordinates as members of his family. As the head of the family he provides his subordinates with good working conditions and fringe benefits.

·         It is assumed that workers will work harder out of gratitude. This leadership style was admirably successful in Japan with her peculiar social background.

·         This leadership style has been widely prevalent in small firms in India. However this paternalistic approach is unlikely to work with mature adult employees many of whom do not like their interests to be looked after by a “good father” instead of gratitude it might generate antagonism and resentment in the subordinates.

BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP

·         The leader’s behavior is characterized by a high degree of reliance on rules, regulations and procedures to which both he and his subordinates subscribe. As a result the process of administration is reduced to a series of routine actions.

·         The rules specify the obligations of the subordinates and enjoin upon them to do particular things in specific ways. There is no participation or initiative on their part.

·         This style of leadership fosters worker apathy. The rules serve as a specification of the minimum level of acceptable performance. It is possible for workers to remain apathetic, for they know just now little they should do to remain secure in their jobs.
·
·         This leads to what is called bureaucratic sabotage a deliberate  apathy fused with resentment so that every act of conforming to the letter of the rule is accompanied  by a conscious intention to violate it.

·         Rules make it possible for workers to indulge in activity without participation, they enable  them to work without being emotionally committed to work. 

·         Rules also lead to red tape and the buck, too much paper work and too great a desire to play safe.

MANIPULATIVE  LEADERSHIP

·         This style of leadership is based on the belief that employees are persons who should be manipulated  by the leader so that his goal may be attained. It exploits the aspirations of the employees. Under this style of leadership employees know that they are being manipulated and therefore, become resentful and bitter.

·         A manipulative leader, however, is very sensitive about the needs and desires of his employees as individuals. But the information 

·         Gathered as a result of this sensitivity is not used for the benefit of the employees instead it is utilized by him for his own personal profit.

The  main  characteristics of this style are

  1  personal goals are reached by a manipulation of the employees.

 2  Employee needs and desires are viewed as tools to extract performance.

This style of leadership is effective only in specific situations.
   For  Example

                      When co-operation and co- ordination have to be achieved on a project and previous leaders were unable to motivate the group properly; or when highly motivated employees and needed for short duration projects. They are often give the illusion of reward and are thus motivated for short periods.

EXPERT LEADERSHIP

·         This is an emerging style of leadership resulting in past from to complexity of modern organizations. The basis for expert leadership is the individual leader’s knowledge and ability; and he assumes the role of the leader regardless of his age, sex, physical or other attributes.

     It depends largely on the approximate of skills and the needs of other in a situation with any change in a particular situation, another person may become the leader who would meet the needs arising out of
·          
    The change in these circumstances, a person is    looked upon by group members as an expert who must continuously demonstrate his expertise in order to maintain his position as a leader.

IN THIS STYLE OF LEADERSHIP

1.  The perception of group members ensures that the leader’s talent and expertise are joined with the needs of the situations.

2.  Leadership skills are usually transferable. The expert leader is effective in one situation may really be a ‘‘BOMB’’ in another.

  Such  expertise can be successful in these situations 

1.  When the group members are convinced that they can reach their goal by following the advice and guidance of the expert
2.  when a situation develops in which specific expertise is necessary for the survival or performance of group.

CONCLUSION

·         A leader is guides and directs other people. A leader givens the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behaviour.Leadership is different from managisement.It is only a part of management .

·         A good leadership is a must for the success of a business. Good motivates his subordinates creates confidence in them sustains their enthusiasm increases their morale ensures high productivity and stability in the organization helps in the use of productivity and stability in the organization helps in the use of achieving organization goals.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.PRINCIPLES  OF MANAGEMENT
    BY PRIN T. Y. RANA , PROF A. B. SAVJANI,  B. S. SHAH PARKASHAN

2 .  PERSONNEL   OF  MANAGEMENT
     BY DR.C.B  MAMARIYA, PROF.S.V.GANKAR
    HIMALAYA   PUBLISHING  HOUSE

3. A NEW LOOK ORGANAISATIONAL  BEHAVIOUR 
     BY BISWANATH  GHOSH
    HIMALAYA  PUBLISHING  HOUSE

 4  STODENTS’  GUIDE  TO MANAGEMENT
      BY D.R.  N.  VASISHTH  


online marketing, marketing jobs, business marketing, plan marketing, marketing management, what is marketing, marketing strategy, marketing manager, marketing digital, marketing social, online marketing products, online marketing efamous, b2b online marketing, b2b socialmediagroup, poster myprinting, druckerpatronen markt24, internet marketing, jobs online marketing, online marketing business, online marketing manager, jobs in marketing, sales marketing jobs, sales and marketing, online marketing jobs, online marketing, marketing jobs london, sports marketing, sports marketing jobs, digital marketing jobs, digital marketing, small business marketing, business and marketing, business marketing management, business marketing plan, business marketing jobs, business marketing online, business marketing ideas, marketing ideas, marketing degree, business marketing degree online marketing, marketing jobs, business marketing, plan marketing, marketing management, what is marketing, marketing strategy, marketing manager, marketing digital, marketing social, online marketing products, online marketing efamous, b2b online marketing, b2b socialmediagroup, poster myprinting, druckerpatronen markt24, internet marketing, jobs online marketing, online marketing business, online marketing manager, jobs in marketing, sales marketing jobs, sales and marketing, online marketing jobs, online marketing, marketing jobs london, sports marketing, sports marketing jobs, digital marketing jobs, digital marketing, small business marketing, business and marketing, business marketing management, business marketing plan, business marketing jobs, business marketing online, business marketing ideas, marketing ideas, marketing degree, business marketing degree