MEANING & TYPES OF INTERVIEW - COMMUNICATION THEORY



MEANING & TYPES OF INTERVIEW.
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY

CONTENTS

Introduction of interview
Meaning of interview
Definition of interview
Objectives & importance of interview
Steps in interview process
Types of interview
Limitation of interview
Guidelines for effective interviewing
Conclusion

Introduction of Interview 
     
Interview is probably the most widely used selection tool. It is a most complex selection technique because its scope includes measuring all the relevant characteristics and integrating and classifying all other information about the applicant. In practically all organization interviewing is used for a variety of purposes, including selection, appraisal, disciplinary action, counseling and general problem solving.

The interview is a selection technique which enables the employer to view the total individual and directly appraise him and his behavior. It is a method by which an idea about an applicant’s personality can be obtain by a face-to-face contact.
 
It tries to achieve an exacting appraisal of an applicant, his previous experience, education, training and family backgrounds.

Interview is face to face interaction between two persons for particular purpose. It’s also employed to screen candidates for admission into institutes higher learning. Thus an interview  is a purposeful exchange of views, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.

 The interview is used in practically every business and profession. Some activities call for a high degree of proficiency in interviewing ;these are the activities of engineers, lawyers, social workers, industrial relations managers ,salesmen and supervisors, investigating grievances. The interview is widely used in securing credit information, making loans, selling, adjusting complaints as well as in personnel administration and management.                                                                                               

Meaning and definition of Interview

“Interviewing” is meant “deliberate, active listing with a purpose to draw the other person out, to discover what he really wants to say, and to give a chance to express himself freely.”

“An interview is an attempt to secure maximum amount of information form the candidate concerning his suitability for the job under consideration.”

“An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.”

Objectives & importance of interview

In the selection process, interviews serve the following purposes:

To cross-check or verify the information obtained in earlier steps,i.e. application form and tests.
To judge the candidate’s qualification and characteristics so as to decided whether or not to select him. 
To give the candidate essential facts about the job and the company to enable him to to decide intelligently whether he should or should not accept the employment. 
To established a rapport or mutual understanding between the company and the candidate and to promote the company’s goodwill.                   

Steps in interview process
    
 An effective interview involves the following sequence of steps:          

 1.) Preparation for the interview:-      
                       
Advance preparation is essential for a successful interview. The following arrangements should be made before the interview begins:

Determining the objectives of the interview.
Choosing the appropriate type of interview.
Acquainting oneself about the candidate.
Determining the type of information to be obtained.
Selecting the right interviewers.
Selecting the candidates to be interviewed by checking and comparing their applications and test scores.
Finalising the interview assessment forms.

2.) The physical setting:

The place of interview should be both private and comfortable. It should be neat and clean, well lighted. It should be free from noise and interruptions. The candidates should be properly received and should be guided into the interview room. The interview should start at the fixed time and the candidates should not be required to wait unnecessarily.

3.) Conducting the interview:

This step is heart of the interview process. In this activities are follows.
Establishing rapport with the candidate and gaining his confidence exchange of a smile, offering seat to the candidate, etc.
Getting complete information-for this purpose,
Ask open-close question.
Use the language which is clear to the candidate.

4.) Recording the observation- 

The interview should write down in brief  his observation of the candidate on the interview forms. Such notes will indicate to the candidate the interviewer’s interest and thereby encourage him to talk freely. These notes will also be helpful in evaluating the candidate later.

5.) Closing the interview:
                               
The close of the interview is as significant as it beginning. The interview is a trying situation for the candidate. Therefore, it should end with a happy note without any awkward situation. before closing the interview the candidate should be asked whether he wants to make any comments in order to  the interviewer may show some sing at an appropriates time . Laying down the pen, pushing back the chair saying thank you, that's all are these sings.

6.) Evaluation of results:
                               
 After interviewers is over, the interviewer should evaluation the candidate’s suitability for the job . It is based on observation impression and information collected during the interview. The evaluation may be done either by grades ranging from A to E . After the interview , a list of selected candidates is prepared.           

Types of interview

            The interviews are classified by the purpose for which the interview is held.

Promotion interview:-                                               
                                     persons due for promotion are interviewed even if there is no competition. The interview is likely to be informal and serves as induction into a new team, with new responsibilities. Clarification about nature of duties, responsibilities and expectations are made during a promotion interview.

Informal interview:-
                          It is planned and is used when the staff is required urgently. A friend or relative of the employer may take a candidate to the house of employer or manager who ask few questions like name, birth place ,educations and experience,etc. when candidate enquires about the vacancies after reading an advertisement, it’s a example of  informal interview.               

Formal interview:
                             This type of interview is preplanned and is held in a formal atmosphere. All the formalities  and procedure,e.g.the time, the venue and the questions to be asked are decided  in advance.

Appraisal or assessment interview:-
                                An appraisal interview is one of the methods of periodical assessment of employees. There are other methods like completion of self assessment forms and assessment by supervisors. But annual appraisal interview is the best method for judging employees' attitudes. A face-to-face confidential talk is an opportunity for both , the employee an the supervisor to discuss several issues.

Patterned or structured interview:  
           
such interview is fully planned to a high degree of accuracy and precision. It’s  based on the assumption that to be more effective every pertinent detail should be worked out in advance. Therefore, a list questions to be asked is prepared and the questions are asked  in a particular cycle. The time to be allowed to each  candidate and the information to be sought a predecided. The interviewer is carefully selected. 
           
The interviewer actively participates and the candidate is expected only to answer the questions. Thus, a standardized pattern is adopted or the structure of the interview is decided in advance. Such interview is also known as directed or guided interview. 

It allows for a systematic coverage of the required information.                     

Stress Interview:  - 
     
 This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behavior and level of with standing during the period of stress and strain. Interviewer tests the candidate by putting him under stress and strain by interrupting the applicant from answering, criticizing his opinions, asking questions pertaining to unrelated areas, keeping silent for unduly long period after he has finished speaking etc. Stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effective results. Stress interview must be handled with at most care and skill. This type of interview is often invalid.

As the interviewee’s need for a job, his previous experience in such type of interviews may inhibit his actual behavior under such situations.
 
Behavioral Interview:-

      In a behavioral interview, the interviewer will ask you questions based on common situations of the job you are applying for. The logic behind the behavioral interview is that your future performance will be based on a past performance of a similar situation. You should expect questions that inquire about what you did when you were in XXX situation and how did you dealt with it. In a behavioral interview, the interviewer wants to see how you deal with certain problems and what you do to solve them.

Group Interview:-

         Many times companies will conduct a group interview to quickly prescreen candidates for the job opening as well as give the candidates the chance to quickly learn about the company to see if they want to work there. Many times, a group interview will begin with a short presentation about the company. After that, they may speak to each candidate individually and ask them a few questions. 

 One of the most important things the employer is observing during a group interview, is how you interact with the other candidates. Are you emerging as a leader or are you more likely to complete tasks that are asked of you? Neither is necessarily better than the other, it just depends on what type of personality works best for the position that needs to be filled.

Lunch Interview:-

        Many times lunch interviews are conducted as a second interview. The company will invite you to lunch with additional members of the team to further get to know you and see how you fit in. This is a great time to ask any questions you may have about the company or position as well, so make sure you prepare your questions in advance.
Although you are being treated to a meal, the interview is not about the food. Don't order anything that is too expensive or messy to eat. Never take your leftovers home in a doggy bag either. You want to have your best table manners and be as neat as possible. You don't need to offer to pay, it is never expected for a candidate to pay at a lunch interview.    Chew quietly and in small bites so you don't get caught with a mouthful of food when the recruiter asks you a question.

Group Discussion Interview:- 
      
 There are two methods of conducting group discussion interview, namely group interview method and discussion interview method. All candidates are brought into one room i.e. interview room and are interviewed one by one under group interview This method helps a busy executive to save valuable time and gives a fair account of the objectivity of the interview to the candidates.

Under the discussion interview method, one topic is given for discussion to the candidates who assemble in one room and they are asked to discuss the topic in detail. This type of interview helps the interviewer in appraising, certain skills of the candidates like initiative, inter-personal skills, dynamism, presentation, leading comprehension, collaboration etc.Interviewers are at ease in this category of interview because of its informality and flexibility. But it may fail to cover some significant portions of the candidates’ background and skills

Depth Interview:  

    In this type of Interview, the candidates would be examined extensively in core areas of knowledge and skills of the job. Experts in that particular field examine the candidates by posing relevant questions as to extract critical answers from them, initiating discussions regarding critical areas of the job, and by asking the candidates to explain even minute operations of the job performance. Thus, the candidate is examined thoroughly in critical / core areas in their interviews.

Phone interview:

      A phone interview may be for a position where the candidate is not local or for an initial prescreening call to see if they want to invite you in for an in-person interview. You may be asked typical questions or behavioral questions.
    Most of the time you will schedule an appointment for a phone interview. If the interviewer calls unexpectedly, it's ok to ask them politely to schedule an appointment. On a phone interview, make sure your call waiting is turned off, you are in a quiet room, and you are not eating, drinking or chewing gum. 

Panel or board interview:

                            such interview is conducted by a group of interviewers. It seeks to pool the collective wisdom and judgment of several interviewers. Question are asked in turn or at random. The candidate may even be asked to meet the members of the panel individually for a fairly lengthy interview.

Guidelines for effective interviewing
        interview can be made be more  effective by observing the following guidelines:
An interview should have a definite time schedule with ample time for conduct, i.e., it should  not be hurried.
Interview should have an element of privacy.
The interview should be based on a checklist of what to look for in a candidate such a checklist should be prepared on the basis of job requirements.
 Competent, trained and experienced persons should be chosen as interview.
Proper method of interview should be employed.
A specific set of guidelines should be given to the interviews .
There should be proper coordination between the initial and succeed interviews.
The interviewer should try to minimize his personal bias or prejudiced.

Limitations of interview

          Interview is a widely used method of employee selection. But it suffers from several pitfalls, some of which are given below:

Personal bias:-  interview like other people have personal biases. Their likes & dislikes about hairstyle, dress, fluency of speech, etc. affect their judgment.

Halo effect:-  under this type of error, a single prominent characteristics of the candidate affects the judgment of interviewer on all other traits. For example, an interviewer may conclude that a poorly groomed candidate is stupid or alternatively, he may overrate the candidate’s qualifications just because of his pleasing personality.

Constant error:-  such error arises because the interview of previous candidate unduly influence the interviewer in favor or against the candidate. For example, a qualified candidate may be underrated just because the previous candidate was very brilliant.

Leniency:- it implies the tendency to assign high scores. It’s normally associated with lack of confidence and interest in rating. The opposite of leniency is toughness, i.e., the tendency to constantly give low scores. This may arise due to exaggerated expectation  ,lack of contact with people .   

Projection:-    error of projection arises when an interviewer expects his own knowledge, skills and values in a candidate. Therefore , he is  likely to select candidates who resemble him in terms of manners, background, voice, etc.
        
Conclusion

               The interview  is probably the most widely used selection tool. It is most complex selection technique because its scope includes measuring all the relevant characteristics ad integrating ad classifying all other information about the applicant. I practically all organization interviewing is used fa variety of purposes, including selection, appraisal, discipline action  ad problem solving. or



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Human resources management


                                -Dr. Tripathi.


 Personal management.       


                                    - C.B. mamoria .


      Human resources management

                                    -Gary dessler.




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