JOB ANALYSIS - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT



JOB ANALYSIS

BY

SMART LEARNING WAY



CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION OF JOB ANALYSIS.
DEFINITION OF JOB ANALYSIS.
CONCEPTS OF JOB ANALYSIS.
PURPOSE OF JOB ANALYSIS.
USES OF JOB ANALYSIS.
PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS.
NATURE OF JOB ANALYSIS.
BENEFITS OF JOB ANALYSIS.
STEPS OF JOB ANALYSIS.
CRITICISM AGAINST JOB ANALYSIS.
APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS.
TECHNIQUES OF COLLECTION FOR JOB ANALYSIS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.

INTRODUCTION OF JOB ANALYSIS

                        Job analysis is some times called the cornerstone of H.R.M. because the information it collects  serves so many HRM function. Job analysis is the process of obtaining information about jobs by determining  the duties, task or activities of those jobs . The procedure involves systematically investing jobs by following a number of predetermined steps specified in advance of the study.

When completed ,  job analysis result in a written report summarizing the information obtain from the analysis of twenty or thirty individual job tasks or activities. The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity. 

 DEFINATION OF JOB ANALYSIS
                       
The U.S.  Department of labour defined defined job analysis as, “the process of determining ,by observation and reporting  pertinent information relating to the nature of specific job. It is the determination of tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge , abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of the successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others”.

CONCEPTS OF JOB ANALYSIS
                       
Jobs have their own terminology. It is necessary to  understand  this terminology before discussing  job analysis in detail.

1)      Job :-

 It is group of  positions involving same duties , responsibilities , knowledge and skills . Each job has definite title and is different from other jobs. For examples, peon, typist, mail clerk, salesman, are jobs.

2)      Position :-

It implies a collection of tasks and duties regularly assigned to one person. Several persons may be classified under the same job but each may perform different work.

3)      Occupation :-

An occupation implies a group of jobs which are similar as to the type of work and which contain common characteristics.

4.)      Duty :-

It means a related sequence of tasks.
        5)   Task :-
It refers to a distinct work activity with an identifiable beginning and end.

     6) Job family :-
 It implies job of similar nature example: clerical jobs.

7) Job classification:-
It means grouping of jobs into certain categories on some specified basis.

8) Job evaluation :-
            It implies determining the worth of a job to an organization by comparing it with other jobs with in the organization and with job market outside.

PURPOSE OF JOB ANALYSIS

The main purpose of job analysis are as follows:-

1.)    Job redesign  :-

A job may be analysed to simplify the process and methods involved in it such work simplification helps to improve productivity.

2.)    Work standards :-

In order to established job and time standard, a job has to be analysed in detail. A systematic study of the job reveals the time that should be taken in performing the total task. 

3.)    Miscellaneous :-

 Job analysis provides supports to other human resource activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal,  job evolution,safty etc.

Uses of job analysis


A comprehensive programme of job analysis is an essential element of sound human resource management . The specific uses of job analysis are given below:

1)Organizational design:-

Job analysis is useful in classifying jobs and interrelationship among them. Responsibility commensurate with authority and overlapping.

2)Human resource planning:-

Job analysis provides useful information for forecasting manpower requirements in terms of knowledge and skills. It is also helps in planning for promotions and transfers by indicating lateral and vertical relationship between different jobs.      

3) Recruitment and selection:- 

Information relating to the tasks, responsibility, knowledge and skills serves as a realistic basis for hiring people. Job analysis provides understanding of what an employee is expected to do on the job. 

4) Placement and orientation:-

A clear understanding of job requirements helps in matching this requirements with the abilities, interests and aptitude of people.

5.) Training  and development:-

Job analysis provides valuable information required to identified training needs, to design training programmes and to evaluate training effectiveness.     

6) Performance appraisal:-
Job analysis helps in determining performance standards in critical parts of job. Employee performance can then be evaluated against  known standards and critical activities. The superior can compare actual performance with the standards set with the help of job analysis.

 7) Career path planning:-
Job analysis provides a clear idea of opportunities  in terms of career paths and jobs available in organisation. 

8) Job design:-

With the help of knowledge  about job requirements, improvements in work design and work methods can be made to improve productivity and job satisfaction.

9) Job evaluation:-

 Job analysis serves as the basis for determining the relative worth of different jobs. It, therefore ,helps in developing appropriate wage and salary structures, with internal pay equity between jobs.

10) Labour relations:-

Information obtained through jobs analysis is helpful to both management and trade unions for collective bargaining. It can also be useful resolved disputes and grievances relating to work load, work procedures, etc.

11) Employ counseling:-

 Job analysis provides information about career choices and personal limitations . Such information is helpful in vocational guidance and rehabilitation counselling. 

12) Health and safety:-

Job analysis reveals unhealthy and hazardous environmental an operational conditions in various jobs. Heat, noise, dust, fumes, etc. are the examples of  such conditions.   

PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS

Jobs can be analysed through a process, which consists of six basic steps.

1)Collection of  background information:-

Background information consist of organization chart, class specifications and existing job description.

 2)Selection of representative position to be analysed:-

It would be too difficult and too time consuming to analyses all the jobs.

3) Collection of job analysis data:-

This step involves actually analyzing a job by collecting data on features of the job, required employee behavior and human requirements.

4) Developing a job description:-

This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms, of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations etc.


5) Developing a job specification:-

This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification. Job specification or job requirements describe the personal  qualities, traits, skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done.

6) Developing employee specification :-

This final step involves conversion of specifications of human qualities under job specification  into an employee specification. Employee specification describes physical qualification, educational qualifications, experience etc., which specify that the candidate with these qualities possesses the minimum human listed in job specification.

THE NATURE OF JOB ANALYSIS

 The following types of information via the job analysis:-

1) Work activities:-

First, he or she collects information about the job’s actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting.

2) Human behaviors:-
The specialist may also collect information about human behavior like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing.

3) Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids:-
This category includes information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied, and services rendered.

4) Performance standards:-

The employer may also want information about the job’s performance standards.

5) Job context:-

Included here is information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, and the organizational and social context-for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact.

6) Human requirements:-

This includes information regarding the job’s human requirements, such as job-related knowledge or skills and required personal attributes.

BENEFITS OF JOB ANALYSIS

1) Organization & human resource planning.
2) Selection, induction, & training.
3) Performance appraisal.
4) Job evaluation.
5) Wages & salary administration.
6) Internal mobility.
7) Preventing dissatisfaction.
8) Discipline.
9) Health safety.
10) Industrial relations.

STEPS OF JOB ANALYSIS

There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Let’s look at each of them.

Step 1 : 

Decide how you’ll use the information, since this will determine the data you collect and how you collect them. Some data collection techniques – like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails – are good for writing job description and selecting employees for the job.

Step 2: 

 Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts and job descriptions.

Step 3: 

 Select representative positions. Why? Because there may be too many similar job to analyze. 

Step 4:

Actually analyze the job – by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.

Step 5:

 Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.

Step 6:

     Develop a job description and job specification. These are two tangible products of the job analysis. The job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, as well as it’s important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards. The job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills and background required for getting the job done. It may be in a separate document or in the same document as the job description. 

 CRITICISM AGAINST JOB ANALYSIS

John b. minner criticieses that job analysis, job description, job specification are too restrictive in nature and key are not desirable because the job is largely what an individual makes of it. Further the job descriptions impose undue limitations on the development of the individual in this job. 

However, job analysis which takes into consideration the social and psychological needs of  an employee would eliminate such criticisms.

APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS

The systematic and quantization definition of job content that job analysis provides is the foundation of many HRM practices specifically, the analysis serves to justify job descriptions and other HRM selection procedure several different job analysis approaches are used to gather data each with specific advantages and disadvantages five of the more popular method are:-  

Function job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire system, the critical incident method, task inventory analysis and comprised job analysis.

TECHNIQUES OF COLLECTION FOR JOB ANALYSIS

There are several techniques that can be used for the purpose of collection data:
The important amount them are:
Interviews,
Direct observation,
Maintenance of long records,
Questionnaires,
Critical incident technique etc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1)Human resource management.
                  By:- Dessler Gary.
2) Human resource management.
                           By:- Scott Snell & George Bohlander.
3) Essentials of Human resource management and industrial relations.
            Text, cases and games.
                  By:- P.Subba rao.
4) Human resource management.
          By:- Jogendra Mehta.
                   Aadi publications, Jaipur, India.
5) Human resource management.
                          By:- C.B.Gupta.
                          Sultan chand & Sons.
6) Human resource personnel management.
          By:- K.Aswathappa.
 Tata Mc Graw – hill publishing Company Limited.
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