IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF BUYING BEHAVIOR PROCESS - MARKETING MANAGEMENT



IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF BUYING BEHAVIOR PROCESS

BY

SMART LEARNING WAY                 

Contents

·         Introduction
·         Definition
·         Factors of buying behavior
·         Buying behavior process
·         Conclusion
·         Bibliography

 Introduction

 Buyer behaviour is the attempt to understand and predict human actions in the buying role. It has assumed growing importance under market–oriented or customer- oriented marketing planning and management .

 Buyers market for many product and the growth of consumerism and consumer legislation since 1960.Buyer behaviour is one of the most important keys to successful marketing.

Definition

 Edward W. Cundiff and Richard R. Still defined “ Process whereby individuals decide whether, what, when, where, how and from whom to purchase goods and services.”


Webster defined as  “ all psychological, social and physical behaviour of potential customer as they become aware of, evaluate, purchase, consume, and tell others about products and services.”        
Each Element Of This Definition Is  Important :-

1. Buyer behaviour involves both individual processes and group processes.

2.Buyer behaviour is reflected from awareness right through post-purchase evaluation indicating satisfaction or  non-satisfaction from purchases.

3. Buyer behaviour includes communication, purchasing and consumption behaviour.

4. Consumer behaviour is basically social in nature. Hence, social environment plays an important role in shaping buyer behaviour.

5. Buyer behaviour includes both consumer and business buyer behaviour.
                        
Factors of buying behaviour

1. Cultural factors:-

          Cultural factors have deep related influence on consumer behaviour. These factors include culture, sub-culture and social class.

  
2. Social factors:-

          The social factors which include reference groups, family and social roles and status also influence the consumer behaviour. Designing a marketing strategy, the marketer must carefully consider the nature and extent of social influences on the potential customers.

3. Personal factors:-
                 A consumer behaviour is also influenced by personal factors like age and life cycle, occupation, economic circumstances, life style and personality.

4. Psychological factors:-

              Psychological factors like motivation, perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes influence the consumer behaviour considerably.

Buying behaviour process

·         Perceived want or desire
·         Information search
·         Evaluation of alternatives
·         Purchase decision
·         post-purchase experience and behaviour

1.      PERCEIVED WANT OR DESIRE:-

          Buying process begins when a person begins to feel that a certain need or desire has arisen and it has to be satisfied.

            The intensity of want will indicate the speed with which a person will move to fulfill the unsatisfied want. Other less pressing wants may have to be postponed as the buyer cannot have unlimited purchasing power. 

         Marketing management should offer appropriate cues in the communications which can promote the sale of products.

          Communication-mix not only triggers true needs and desires of customers but also offers attractive cues or selling point in the buying process.

2.      INFORMATION SEARCH :-

         Aroused needs can be satisfied promptly when the desired product is not only known but also easily available, e.g., water to satisfy our thirst. But when it is not clear what type or brand of the product can offer best satisfaction and where and now it can be secured, the person will have to search for relevant information about the brand, location and the manner of obtaining the product.

         Consumer can tap many sources of information e.g. family, friends, neighbors, opinion leaders and acquaintances. Marketers also provide relevant information through salesmen, advertising, dealers, packaging, sales promotion and window display.

        We have also mass-media like newspapers, radio, television. Package label can provide information. Consumerorganizations also can offer necessary information and guidance. 

         Marketers are expected to provide reliable, up-to-date and adequate information regarding their products or services.

         This is the pressing demand of consumerism. Average consumers are always in need of reliable guidance and information. Seller is expected to provide these services.


 3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES :-
       
Available information can be employed to evaluate the alternatives (products or brands). This is the critical stage in the process of buying particularly costly durable goods.
        
There are several important elements in the process of evaluation :

1.A product is viewed as a bundle of attributes. These attributes or features are used for evaluating alternative brands.

 For example, a product like tea has certain common attributes such as taste, flavor, strength, aroma, colour, number of cups per packet and price. Consumers will have different preferences for these attributes.


2. Information cues or hints about a set of characteristics of the product or brand such as quality, price, distinctiveness, availability, etc. are provided by marketers. These can be compared and evaluated in the buying process.

3. Brand images and brand concepts can help   in the evaluation of alternative.


4. In order to reduce the number of alternatives, some consumers may consider only more critical attributes and mention the level for these attributes.
           In saree purchases, women first specify price range to eliminate many alternatives then specify colours to further reduce alternatives and finally compare the remaining alternatives like quality, price, texture, length etc.

   
5. Occasionally, consumers, may use an evaluation process permitting trade offs among different alternatives.
           marketers should grasp thoroughly the process and utility function for designing and promoting a product that will be readily acceptable in the market.

4. PURCHASE DECISION :-
 

 While the consumer is evaluating the alternatives, she/he will develop some likes and dislikes about the alternative brands. This attitude towards brands influences her/his intention to buy. Other factors which may influence the intention to purchase are


Social factors e.g. attitude of reference group members on whom she/he relies for final selection she/he may have to need their advice.

2. Situational factors like availability, dealer terms, falling prices due to recession, loss of job or employment, etc.


3. Perceived risk may influence the decision to purchase. Higher priced products involve higher degree of risk. Sophisticated products involve performance risk. Consumers may not have confidence in foreign products involving higher cost and they would prefer national brands to reduce risks and problems of service after sale.

 5. POST-PURCHASE EXPERIENCEAND BEHAVIOUR 

          The brand purchase and the product use provides feedback of information regarding attitudes. If the level of satisfaction derived is as per expectations. It will create brand preference influencing future purchase. But if the purchased brand does not yield desired satisfaction. Negative feelings will occur and this will create anxiety and doubts. This phenomenon is called cognitive dissonance (post-purchase anxiety).

             There will be lack of harmony between the buyer’s beliefs and his/her purchase decision (behaviour). The consumer will wonder (after buying a godrej refrigerator) whether he/she would have been better off by buying a kelvinator refrigerator. The greater the importance of your purchase decision and more the attractiveness of your rejected alternative (kelvinator), the higher will be the degree of dissatisfaction or dissonance.

              A dejected buyer may try to reduce his dissonance by returning goderj refrigerator, if possible and buy kelvinator. He may reduce the dissonance cognition by changing his beliefs and develop liking for godrej. Marketer may try to create dissonance by attracting users of other brands to his brand. Advertising and sales promotion can help marketer in this job of brand switching. Onida TV. ads achieved this.

Conclusion

For marketing management the most important behaviour on the part of a prospective buyer or consumer is the process of deciding whether to buy or not to buy.

The purchaser passes through five distinct stages in taking a decision for purchasing a particular commodity. These stages are need arousal, information search, evaluation behaviour, purchase decision, post-purchase feelings.
    
Bibliography

1. Marketing Management
       - S. A. Sherlekar
·         Himalaya publishing house

2. Principle and practice of marketing in India.
             -Dr. C. B. Mamoria
             -R. L. Joshi
             -Dr. N. I. Mulla
·         Kitab mahal     

 3.  Marketing a managerial introduction
                  - J. C. Gandhi
·         Tata MC Graw –Hill Publishing company limited

4.   Modern marketing
       - PILLAI R. H. N.
·         Himalaya publishing house






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