FACTORS AFFECTING MEDIA SELECTION - MARKETING MANAGEMENT





FACTORS AFFECTING MEDIA SELECTION
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY

CONTENTS 

·         Introduction of media
·         Various definition of media selection
·         Media of advertising chart
·         Media selection
·         Factors affecting media selections
·         Characteristics of important media
·         Conclusion
·         Bibliography

INTRODUCTION

            Selection of the most effective television shows, Radio, Programs, Magazines, Newspapers and other media vehicles to convey a message to a target population has always been more involved than simply selecting the set of media vehicles with the lowest cost-per-thousand. Other factors to be considered include the editorial climate of the vehicle, its prestige, the visual and / or audio qualities in relation to the requirements of the   

product message interactions among vehicles, and the social environment in which the audience reads or views the vehicles. Prior of the sixties these additional factors were combined under the title “experienced judgment.” Cost-per-thousand estimates were adjust by an agency’s “experienced judgment,” implying that all relevant factors were taken into account in the ultimate media selection.

 Various definition of media selection

1. Communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet.

2.  Data storage material divided into three broad categories according to the recording method: (1) Magnetic, such as diskettes, disks, tapes, (2) Optical, such as microfiche, and (3) Magneto-Optical, such as CDs, and DVDs.

3. In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. In the computer world, "media" is also used as a collective noun, but refers to different types of data storage options.

4. Computer media can be hard drives, removable drives (such as Zip disks), CD-ROM or CD-R discs, DVDs, flash memory, USB drives, and yes, floppy disks. For example, if you want to bring your pictures from your digital camera into a photo processing store, they might ask you what kind of media your pictures are stored on. Are they on the flash memory card inside your camera or are they on a CD or USB drive?
                                    
Media selection

In making media decision, we have to consider the following factors :

·         The financial allocation for advertising.
·         The nature of the product and the demand for it.
·         The type of the prospects, their location and other characteristics.
·         The nature of competition and the extent of coverage required.
·         Cost of media, co-operation and promotional aids offered by media, media circulation.
·     Right media of advertisement will enable the advertiser to deliver the message effectively to the intended markets or prospects.

Factors affecting media selections

Nature of product :-

                  product to be advertised can be industrial product or consumer product. Such product advertised in specific trade journals, magazines. consumer product advertised through mass media television, newspaper and outdoor advertising etc. such magazines circulation at in other countries ‘product form India’, ‘products finders’.  

Nature of customers :-

                 An appropriate media plan must consider the type of consumer. Differ in their age-group, sex, income, personality, educational, attitude etc. consumer group that is man, women, children, young, old, professional, businessman, literate, illiterate etc. some of the consumer traits affecting media selection are discussed below.
Age:- 

          advertising for kids products , television is the best media for communicating message. TV  add in cartoon, tv channels and for young Magazines and for old television are good choice.
 
level of education:- 

               For highly educated – in magazines, national newspaper, internet and television etc.
               For less educated – local newspaper, languages, TV ,magazines etc.
               For illiterate – print media is not suitable. Broadcast media is good choice.
 Number of customer:- 

               For more customer  - mass media, like television, newspaper.
               For less customer – direct mail, media, advertising on telephone are suitable.     

Distribution of product :-

                 At the time of product distribution locally or regionally, then media with local coverage like newspaper, cable network etc. it the product is national level, then national dailies , level , TV channels will be suitable.

Advertising objectives :-

                 The main objective of every advertising is to get favorable response from customer and also for get immediate results, for these fast media like newspaper will be considered. If for build corporate goodwill and brand equity then magazines, television will be considered.   

Nature of message :- 

                 If advertising message is informative newspaper will be suitable. If persuade consumer and potential consumer, emotional apple and rational apple for television media will be suitable for advertising. At the time of schemes, discount, exchange, festival offer. then posters, banners and newspaper are suitable.

Size of ad-budget :-

                 If budget is more then costly media, that is television, national dailies, popular magazines can be selected. If budget is less  Then media like posters , banners, cable-network, local newspaper will be suitable.

Media used by competitors :-

                  If advertiser does not consider competitors move regarding media, then is possible that advertiser’s market share is taken by competitors. If the industry leader is using TV as media at that time consider the same media.

Media – availability :-

                  sometimes specific space for advertisements is in print media is already book by other advertiser and hence space not available. Sometimes it happens advertisement.   
                
 On front page , cover page is already book by others. Similarly advertisement on television  during particular programme. It happens booked  by others advertisers.

Media reach and coverage :-

                 Such media should be selected which has wide reach and can cover our target customers. Media reach means total circulations viewership of media for a given time. Media reach means total numbers of person who are exposed to a media in a specific time period. Media coverage means number of advertiser target customers  Exposed to media in a specific time period.

Media cost:-

                 Advertiser should compare the cost of each media by considering the number of audience covered by such media. It seems to be costly but it can cover large number of audience, then cost per audience will be less.
                  Media cost should also be compared in terms of cost per unit of reader, or cost per unit of viewer. That media should be selected whose cost per reader or cost per viewer are minimum.

Media frequency :-

                 It is refers to average number of times, the audience is exposed to media vehicle in a specific period of time. Sometimes the new newspaper will come and old newspaper will be discarded the same day, in case of magazines, media frequency is more. Magazines are used for so many times. So media with higher frequency should be selected.

Media image :-

                 Some media image is better image in comparison with other media vehicles. So media with good image should be selected. And we should not select media with bed image.

 CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPORTANT MEDIA

1.)    MURAL ADVERTISING :-  

Mural or outdoor advertising has long life. It has a general and wide appeal. It can attract attention of numerous people. It is good to remind prospects. An advertiser has ample scope to use his skill and art in advertising.

However, outdoor advertising has certain limitations. It can not have a long message. It is not useful in selective advertising or for specialized products.


2.)    PRESS ADVERTISING :- 

Newspaper have a general and wide appeal. It is a very common method of publicity. Newspaper are flexible and timely. Repeat advertising is possible. Periodical change in size and contents is also easy. Selective advertising to some extent is available. Effectiveness of advertising can be estimated by having keyed advertisements. Newspaper offer promotional assistance. Colored and attractive advertisements are now available even in newspapers. They are the best source of market information.
Newspaper are truly a way of life to most of the literate people. They have short closing times.


 However, newspaper have short span of life. Waste in advertising is considerable. Illiteracy affects its utility. magazines and trade journals are other means of press publicity. they are best for colored and attractive advertisements. They have longer life, greater retentive value as well as reference value. Selective appeal is possible.
They have limited circulation. They have higher unit cost per contact.    

FILM ADVERTISING  :-It is a wide appeal.

       It can overcome language barriers. Audio-visual (sound and sight) technique has maximum impact on audience. Sound and sight both are employed for communicating our message. Repeat advertising is possible. However, both cost of production as well as cost of distribution of slides and films are quite high. Selective advertising is not possible. Effectiveness cannot be measured. Waste in film publicity can be considerable.


RADIO ADVERTISIMEN :- 

Of all the media, radio has the shortest closing times: radio use only an audio signal. The copy can be submitted up to air time. Announcement can be made very quickly. It can secure dealer support. It has a very wide apple. It is suitable even for illiterate people. Repeat message is quite common. Spoken word has greater impact than written word. With the entry of FM radio programme ranging from all – talk to Indian and western music, certain target markets can be easily approached. However, radio cannot permit selective advertising. it cannot give detailed information. It has law memory value. Radio has low listing level as it is often used as background for working, studying or some other activity. 

TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENT: - 

Television uses both video and audio signals. It is a unique combination of vision, motion and sound. Products can be demonstrated and also described. We have best sales presentation. Television has all the advantages of radio, namely, sound and explanation, plus the additional advantages of sight. It can appeal through ear as well as eye. Product can be demonstrated with explanation. Television reaches the audience almost like personal face-to-face contact.

Television combines all of the elements of communication : 

(1) Illustration,
(2) Music,
(3) Spoken Words,
(4) Written Words.

 Commercial ads by sponsors of T.V. series have shown creativity and innovation. For global marketers it is a boon.

T.V. ADVERTISEMENT IN INDIA:- 

·         T.V. is somewhat expensive medium.
·         It takes permanence.
·         T.V. message must be seen and understood immediately.
·         HEANCE, T.V. does not allow complicated messages.
          In India, by 2005 we have round the clock coloured T.V. programmes with multichannels. Tailor-made T.V. programmes can be made for each age-group or each market segment. T.V. has penetrated even in rural India. T.V ads have very bright future. Tv ad appears many channels.   
    
 DIRECT MAIL :-

Direct mail is any advertising sent by mail including sales letters, folders, pamphlets, booklets, catalogues and the like. Direct mail is the most personal and selective media. It reaches only the desired prospects. It has minimum waste in circulation. 

The advertising copy can be very flexible. It has maximum possible personal features even without personal contact. It can provide detailed information about the product or service, creating lasting impression. Its effectiveness is measurable. it can be timed as per advertiser’s will. It has maximum personal appeal.
however, direct mail is costly. 

We may not have proper mailing list. Receiver may consider it as junk mail as it may not have entertainment value. It is not a good means of mass communication.

ADVERTISING SPECIALITES :-
 These include a wide variety of items, such as calendars, book, matches, pens, pencils, knives, key rings, diaries, memo advertisements, cigarette lighters, blotters, paper weights, electronic clocks, purses, rain hats and so on.

They are given to advertising targets without cost or obligation. advertiser’s name, address, phone, number, and a short sales message are   Imprinted on the item. The advertiser can choose from among 5000 specialties in the market.

Advertising specialties are reminder type of promotion. It is hoped that they will lead to  customer’s orders and re-orders. However, they have limited space available for sales message.  They are also costly. 

  
    
POINT-OF-PURCHASE ADVERTISING :-

 It really represents sales promotion devices. It covers the display material used in advertising  programme. Such point-of-purchase material may include advertising on the package, window banners, shelf-talkers, merchandise tags, package stuffers, information folders and booklets and such other displaying materials.

TRANSIT ADVERTISING :- 

It onsists of card advertising, which is located within buses, railways, subways, and outside displays which appear on the fronts, sides, and backs of buses or other public transport and transportation terminals. It is the lowest-cost media. It gives geographic selectivity and seasonal selectivity. It has high readership. It can reach pedestrians and traveling public. Non-riders are not exposed to car-cards located inside the vehicle. Car-cards have small size, and they can carry only short copy. Transit advertising is limited in quantity by the number of public vehicles in operation.

CONCLUSION

                  Most media may be used effectively for the attainment of different objectives, also most objectives may be achieved through any of a verity of media.


 BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.) Marketing management
                                    - S.A.Sherlekar

2.) Advertising management
                                    - RAJEEV BATRA
                                    - JOHN G. MYERS
                                    -  DAVID A. AAKER

3.) Advertising management
                                     - Frank jefkins
                                     - Daniel yadin





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