DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOB - HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY



DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOB
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY


Definition: A job design

Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.

Definition: A job analysis

A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans, position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your performance management system.

 A detailed examination of the
(1) tasks (performance elements) that make up a job (employee role), 

(2) conditions under which they are performed, and 

(3) what the job requires in terms of aptitudes (potential for achievement), attitudes (behavior characteristics), knowledge, skills, and the physical condition of the employee. Its objectives include :

(a) determination of the most efficient methods of doing a job,
(b) enhancement of the employee's job satisfaction,
(c) improvement in training methods,
(d) development of performance measurement systems, and
 (e) matching of job-specifications with the person-specifications in employee selection. Comprehensive job analysis begins with the study of the organization itself: its purpose, design and structure, inputs and outputs, internal and external environments, and resource constraints. It is the first step in a thorough understanding of the job and forms the basis of job description which leads to job specification. Also called human resource audit, job study, or occupational analysis.

Definition: A job description
  
A broad, general, and written statement of a specific job, based on the findings of a job analysis. It generally includes duties, purpose, responsibilities, scope, and working conditions of a job along with the job's title, and the name or designation of the person to whom the employee reports. Job description usually forms the basis of job specification.

Definition: A job specification
  
A statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or function. Job specification is derived from job analysis.

Definition: A job evaluation
  
An assessment of the relative worth of various jobs on the basis of a consistent set of job and personal factors, such as qualifications and skills required.
The objective of job evaluation is to determine which jobs should get more pay than others. Several methods such as job ranking, job grading, and factor comparison are employed in job evaluation. Research indicates, however, that each method is nearly as accurate and reliable as the other in ranking and pricing different jobs. Job evaluation forms the basis for wage and salary negotiations.

Definition: A job enlargement

A job design technique in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased (and appropriate training provided) to add greater variety to activities, thus reducing monotony.
Job enlargement is considered a horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. Job enlargement may also result in greater workforce flexibility.

Definition: A job rotation

A job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned manner. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train them.

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