DEFINITION & MEANING OF LEADERSHIP -PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT





DEFINITION & MEANING OF LEADERSHIP
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY

Contents

Introduction of leadership
Meaning of leadership
Definition of leadership
Importance of leadership
Conclusion

WHAT IS LEADERSHIP
                            
 Leadership is the process of motivating other people to act in particular ways in order to achieve specific goals. The motivation of other people may be achieved in a variety of ways which affect leadership styles and the way a person exercises leadership can be identified as a series of actions which are directed towards a particular objective. 

The emphasis is on… action because, although leaders may exert influence through inspirational speeches, they are judged on what they do.

 ‘Not the cry but the flight of the wild duck leads the flock to fly and to follow.’
          (Chinese proverb quoted by John Adair, 1989.)
   
 ‘The common sense conclusion of this book is that leadership potential can be developed, but it does have to be there in the first place’

Introduction
                 
 “Today’s leader is often baffled or  Frustrated by a new kind of politics, which arises from significant interaction, with various governmental agencies, relevant laws and regulations, the courts, the media, the consumers and so on. It is the politics of maintaining institutional inner-distractedness and mastery in ties of rapid change.”

Meaning
            
 Human beings have to be effectively guided towards a desired set of actions so that they willingly contribute towards the organizational goals with zeal and confidence. “zeal is order, earnestness and intensity in the experience and technical ability” the ability of individuals to influence the behavior of others is referred to as leadership. 

The leaders exploit the human potential and transforms it into output which shall be beneficial not only for the organization but also for the individuals concerned. 

Leadership gets the work done out of a person or a group of persons through.
Use of power, depending on the situation.

Understanding the individuals’ needs and using the suitable motivators to fulfill these needs.

 Power is the potential of an individual or a leader to influence the behavior of others.

A leader can derive this power from various sources.

  1. Legitimate power
  2. Reward power
  3. Coercive power
  4. Informative power
  5. Referent power
                               Simply stated, leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of goals in a given situation. According to George R. Terry, “leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.” This definition put a direct emphasis on willingness on the part of the
    people led. Koontz and O'Donnell have defined leadership as “influencing people to follow the achievement of a common goal. It is the ability to exert interpersonal influence by means of communication towards the achievement of a goal.” according to the encyclopedia of social sciences, “ leadership is the relation between an individual and a group around some common interest and behaving in a manner directed or determined by him.” 

Definition
                       
 In the various definitions of leadership the emphasis is on the leader’s ability to direct group efforts towards the achievement of the organizational goals. While some authors believe that the leadership is primarily an exercise of authority and power, most of others look upon it as the process in influencing the group activities. The definitions given by some leading authors and management experts are given below:

DUBIN, R: Leadership is the exercise of authority and making of decisions.

TERRY, G.R.: leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.

BASS, B.M.: leadership, in group discussion, is the assumption of the tasks of initiating, organizing, clarifying, questioning, motivating, summarizing and formulating conclusions; hence, the leader is the person who spends the most tie talking to the group, since he carries but more of these verbal tasks.

FIEDLER,F.E.: leadership is the ‘task of directing and coordinating task relevant group activities’.

BIRLA,A.V.: leadership consists of leading men by their consent.

According to LOUS A.ALLEN, “A leader is one who guides and directs other people. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behavior”.

KOONTZ & O’DONNELL Have defined leadership “as the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with zeal and confidence”.

According to THEO HAIMANN, “leadership is the process by which an executive imaginatively directs guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals organization in such a manner that both will obtain maximum satisfaction”.

 KEITH DAVIS defines “leadership as ability to persuade others to seek the defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals”.

Koontz & weihrich define leadership as “influence, that is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals.  

KEITH DAVIS defines it as “the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.”

According to STONER and WANKEL, leadership is the “process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.”

PEARCE And ROBINSON “leadership is the process of influencing others to work towards the attainment of specific goals .”

KATZ and KAHN have observed: “in the descriptions of organizations, no word is more often used than leadership, and perhaps no word is used with such varied meanings. The word leadership is sometimes used to indicate that it is an attribute of personality; sometimes it is used as if it were a characteristic of certain position , and sometimes as an attribute of behavior.”  

Leadership has been defined as “the relationship in which one person, or leader, influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that which the leader desires” this author views leadership as a relational concept implying two ideas the influencing agent and the persons who are influenced to get a task done. In other words, without followers there can be no leader.

Leadership is that outstanding aspect of management which manifests ability, creativeness, initiative and inventiveness, and which gains the confidence, co-operation and willingness of the people to work by organizing and building employee morale.  

Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards the achievement of a goal in a function of the leader, the follower and other situational variables”

“It is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards its goals”

 “Leadership always involves attempt on the part of a follower (the influenced) or followers in a situation”

Leadership can be defined as “the ability to cause others to follow willingly, usually in initiating change. The ability to cause others to follow for a common goal is one sure way of recognizing leadership. Leaders initiate change either by making decisions or by encouraging others to make the”

Mc farland says, “Administrative leadership is vital to the survival and effectiveness of organization, for it initiates the formulation of enols, secures their acceptance and guides the total effort towards the attainment of these ends.”

In the words of Barnard keys and Thomas case,“leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives.” 

Tannenbaum defines leadership as “interpersonal influence, exercised in situations and directed through the communication process, towards the attainment of goals”

According to James stoner and others, managerial leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task related activities of group members.” 

In the words of David tansik and others,“leadership is a social process by which followers are influenced to willingly engage in certain behavior”

According to peter Drucker, “leadership is the lifting of man’s visions to higher sights, the raising of man’s performance to a higher standard, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations.”   

Tennenbaum et al “leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specified goal or goals.”

 R.T. Livingston “leadership as the ability to awaken in other the desire to follow a common objective.” 

TERRY “leadership is essentially a continuous process of influencing behavior. A leader breaths life into the group and motivates it towards goals. The lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into a burning position for accomplishment.”

TERRY and FRANKLIN “leadership is the relationship in which the leader influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain goals desired by the leader and/or group.”          

   All there definitions point to the fact that leadership is a process of influencing the behavior of individuals in a manner that they work towards the attainment of organizational goals. 

IMPORTANCE

  In today’s world of   competition, a successful enterprise is not only the one which makes maximum profits, but also the one which maximizes the interests of various works groups which come into its contact. Looking after the interest of its shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers and labor are as interests of the owners. An enterprise.

    Which excels in satisfying there diverse groups of society is the one which is a successful enterprise. Effective leaders play a significant role in need satisfaction of the organization, need satisfaction of its work force as also that of the society. The importance of leadership can be understood through the following functions performed by leaders.

  1. Leaders provide the task support
  2. Psychological support
  3. Development of individuals
  4. Building the team spirit
  5. Motivation
  6. Provides feedback

Conclusion.

A leader is one who guides and directs other people. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behavior. Leadership is different from management. It is only a part of management.  

Leadership may be defined as the ability to influence and direct the task-related activities of the members of group. A leader is a goal-setter, planner, executive, expert, group representative, administrator of rewards and punishments and a symbol of the group.

Thoughts….  

         Leadership is not charisma
        Leadership is not public relations
        Leadership is performance
        Leadership is credit worthiness
        Leadership is the bottom line
                              - Rahul Bajaj.

   Leaders are called to stand in that lonely place between what has been and what is not yet.
                                 - Donald p Jones.

 Leadership is action not position.
                     - Donald h Mc Gannon




BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.)PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT,
     Third edition,
     By p.c. tripathi & p.n. reddy,
     Tata McGraw-hill publishing company limited, NEW DELHI.

2.)ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR,
     By L m Prasad,
    sultan chand & sons, Educational publishers NEW DELHI.

3.) MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES,
     By lallan Prasad and S.S. gulshan,
     DELHI.

4.) STUDENTS’ GUIDE TO MANAGEMENT,
     By Dr. N. Vasishth.

5.) MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS & PRACTICES,
    By Tim hannagan, 
    principal of Oxbridge college.

6.) MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR,
    By G.S. sudha.
    RBSA publishers.





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