DEFINATION AND MEANING OF MOTIVATION-PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT



DEFINITION AND MEANING OF MOTIVATION
BY
SMART LEARNING WAY

CONTENTS

Introduction

Meaning and Definition

Features of Motivation

Importance of Motivation

Natures of Motivation

INTRODUCTION

Management is the art of getting things done by others. Getting work done is a difficult task. It is related to human behavior. 

The success of any organization depends upon the behavior and interest of employees. The organization goals are achieved through the right direction of human behavior in a desired manner. 

Before guiding or directing the employees, the reasons for such behavior should be identified. The management can strategically motivation the employees based on such reasons.

Meaning

 SCOTT “ Motivation means a process    of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired way .”

“ Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action. ”

 “ Motivation can be referred to as an act of stimulation of work in order to get the desired objectives, whereas  ability refers to the skill and competence to do a given work.”

“ Motivation means to provide someone with a motive.”

Definition

“A motivation is an inner state that energies, activates , or moves and that directs behavior towards goals.”

“A motive is restlessness , a lack , a yen, a force. One in the grip of a motive, the organism does something to reduce the restlessness, to remedy the lack , to alleviate the yen , to mitigate the force.”

“ Motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated.”
 
 “ Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drivers, desires, aspiration, striving or needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human beings .”

Koontz and O’ Donnell

                        “Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces.”

Mr. Brech
                        
 “Motivation is a general inspiration process which gets the members of the team to pull their weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the tasks they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken,”

 “Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.”

 “Motivation is getting somebody to do something because he want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces.”

“ Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. Nearly all conscious behavior of human being is motivated. The internal needs and drives result into actions for instance, the need for food result in hunger and hence a person is motivated to eat.”

 “ Motivation is the result of processes internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.”

Stanley Vance defines motivation as, “any emotion or desire which so conditions one’s will that the individual is propelled into action.”

Robert Dubin  defines motivation , “ as the complex of forces standing and keeping a person at work in an organization.”

Beach defines, “ Motivation as a willingness to expand energy to achieve a goal or a reword.” 

Shartle defines, “Motivation as a reported urge or tension to move in a given direction or to achieve a certain goal.”

Owen defines, “ Motivation as an ordered way of explaining way a person elects to channel his energies in one direction rather than in another.”

Eduir B. Flippo, “ Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do yours will through the possibility of gain reward.”

The Encyclopedia of management has defined motivation as,

 “ Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some destinated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces inducing the degree of readiness.”

Delton E. MC Farland

“ The concept of motivation is mainly psychological. It relates to those forces operating within the individual employee or subordinate which impel him to act or not to act in certain ways.” 

Michael J . Jucious

“ Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get the desired action.”

J.E.Rosenz  Weig and E.K.Kast

“ Motivation is an inspiration process which impels the members of the team to accomplish the desired goals.”

S.Zedeck and K Blood, “ Motivation is a pre-disposition to act in a specified goal directed way.”

Features of Motivation

1.) Motivation can be positive or negative :-

     -> There can be positive motivation and  negative motivation.
     -> Positive motivation can be simulative, such as higher pay, power position etc.
     -> Negative motivation implies the use of penalties, punishments etc.

2. Motivation is goal oriented :-

    -> Motivation is a behavioral concept. It directs human behavior towards the accomplishment of goals.
    -> If properly motivated, employees put in their best possible efforts in orders to achieve the desired goals.

3. Motivation is complex in nature :-

    -> Different individuals behave differently to a given set of incentives.
  -> Some employees may be highly motivated when they are given monetary incentives, whereas others may be more motivated with the use of non-monetary incentives.

4. Motivation is system oriented :-

    -> Motivation is a combined effect of these groups of factors.
    -> Forces operating within individual, i.e. his nature, needs, values etc.

 5. Motivation is different from job satisfaction:-

    -> Motivation is the act to satisfy needs and desires. Job satisfaction results only when such needs and desires are fulfilled. Job satisfaction is the outcome of motivation. 

6. Motivation is a continuous process:-

    -> Motivation is not a one time process.
   -> This is because, human needs and desires are never ending. When one needs is satisfied, another needs emerges that is to be satisfied. Therefore managers have to identify the emerging needs of their subordinates and strive to satisfy such needs at regular intervals.

Importance of Motivation 

1.     Maximum utilization of factors of production :

 workers perform the work sincerely through the inspiration of motivation.

2.     Willingness to work:

              Motivation influences the willingness of people to work. A man is technically, mentally and physically fit to perform the work but they may not be willing to work.

  3. Reduced absenteeism:

          Financial incentive schemes coerce the workers to work more. This reduces absenteeism.

4. Reduced labour turnover:

                        Motivation has both financial and non-financial incentive schemes. This helps to retain the existing labourers.

5. Availability of right personnel:

         Financial and non- financial incentives not only retain the existing employees but also attract the employees from outside the enterprise.

6. Building of good labour relations :

                         Motivation helps to solve the labour problems of absenteeism, labour turnover, indiscipline and grievance.

7. Increase in the efficiency and output:

Both workers and management have got benefits from motivational plans.

8. Sense of belonging:

         A proper motivation scheme promotes closer rapport between enterprise and workers.

9. Basis of co-operation :

         Efficiency and output are increased through co-operation. The co-operation could not be obtained without motivation, so motivation is a basis of co-operation.

10. Helps in realizing organizational goals :

                         Organizational goals are achieved quickly through motivation. Motivated employee have a feeling of total involvement in the performance of organization task.

Nature of Motivation

1.Based on motives

                        Motivation is based on individual's motives which are internal to the individual. These motives are in the form of feelings that the individual lacks something.

2. Affected by motivating

               Motivation is affected by way the individual is motivated the act of motivating channelises need satisfaction.

3. Goal – directed behavior

Motivation leads to goal-directed behavior. A goal-directed behavior is one which satisfies the causes for which behavior takes placed.

4. Related to satisfaction

                        Motivation is related to satisfaction. Satisfaction refers to the contentment experience of an individual which he derives out of need fulfillment thus satisfaction is a consequence of rewards and punishment associated with past experience.

5. Person motivated in totality 

                        A person is motivated in totality and not in past. Each individual in the organization is a self-contained unit and his needs are interrelated.

6. Complex process

                        Motivation is a complex process, complexity emerges because of the nature of needs and the type of behavior that is attempted to satisfy those needs.
           
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.     Students guide to organization and management
            Published by RCF publications Amravati

 2. Organization behavior
            By sultan chand and sons

3. Organization and Management
            By Tejpal  Sheth

4.Business communication and organization and management
            By Rohini Aggarawal

5. Organization behavior
     R. Aswathappa

6. Principles of management
             T. Ramasamy
             Himalaya publishing house


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